Masculinities, Violence, Childhood: Attending to Early Modern Women--and Men

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In addition, compared to past research on male role norms, less is known about how female role norms, or beliefs about how women should behave, relate to sexual behaviors and beliefs. We expect that conventional norms about women will relate to sexual behaviors and beliefs in similar ways as conventional norms about men do. In contrast, we expect men with more conventional gender attitudes to use condoms more and to perceive fewer barriers to condom use, again because more conventional men may see buying and carrying condoms as part of the male role.

These same women, though, if sexually active may be less likely to use condoms and perceive more barriers to condom use because of their lower power in relationships. Less is known about the association between gender role attitudes and sexual behaviors and beliefs than about endorsement of a sexual double standard and sexual behaviors and beliefs.

In summary, the current study examines how endorsement of a sexual double standard, as well as more general gender role attitudes, are associated with sexual behaviors and beliefs. Specifically, we assess number of partners because individuals who have more partners potentially expose themselves to more opportunities for unwanted pregnancy and STIs. We measure condom use because it protects against unwanted pregnancy and STIs, and therefore carries long term implications for physical health and well-being.

Finally, we measure perceived barriers to condom use because these beliefs are known to relate to consistent condom use and because behavior change is easier when perceived barriers are lower Basen-Engquist et al. For each sexual behavior and belief, we examine the contribution of gender role attitudes above and beyond endorsement of a sexual double standard. Each student completed a survey in a group session. At the time of this visit they had been at university an average of We focus on penetrative sex because these behaviors are the highest risk behaviors for the transmission of HIV and other STIs.

Terri Snyder, Ph.D - American Studies | CSUF

They also answered a question about their lifetime frequency of condom use on the following scale: Higher scores indicate negative beliefs or attitudes about condom use e. Past research has reported adequate reliability for this scale Basen-Engquist et al. We used a item shortened version of the Sexual Double Standard Scale Muehlenhard and Quackenbush to assess the belief that men should be allowed more sexual freedom than women.

Respondents rated their agreement with each item e. We used the antifemininity norms subscale 7 items , which measures the degree to which individuals disapprove of feminine characteristics in men e. We created the Female Role Norms Scale to measure disapproval of masculine characteristics in women. All descriptive statistics are presented in Table 1. To examine associations between gendered attitudes and sexual behaviors and beliefs, we first performed correlations, separately by biological sex, to demonstrate bivariate associations see Table 2.


Next, we performed three hierarchical linear regressions to examine the contribution of endorsement of a sexual double standard and gender role attitudes for each outcome see Table 3. Due to missing data and the fact that only sexually active participants were asked the question about condom use frequency, sample size ranges from to for women, and from to for men. Standardized betas from regressions predicting sexual behaviors and beliefs from gendered attitudes.

In step 1, we entered demographic controls: To test Hypothesis 1, in step 2 we entered endorsement of a sexual double standard and its interaction with biological sex.

To test Hypothesis 2, in step 3 we entered the two gender role attitudes and their interactions with biological sex. Because our hypotheses are specific to predictor rather than outcome, we describe the significant betas by predictor, rather than by model. In all 3 regressions, step 2 addresses Hypothesis 1, and step 3 addresses Hypothesis 2.

For number of partners, the change in R 2 for step 2 was significant see Table 3 , Model 1. Endorsement of a sexual double standard and its interaction with biological sex were both significant, indicating that endorsement of a sexual double standard was associated with number of partners for men but not women. For condom use, endorsement of a sexual double standard and its interaction with biological sex were not significant Table 3 , Model 1, step 2.

For barriers to condom use, the change in R 2 for step 2 was significant see Table 3 , Model 3. I can't say what they did after I left, but I saw a clear willingness to have a fuzzy interpretation of the rules for power users. WE should learn the most wanted lessons from these characters of these short stories. The two of you were an unlikely couple. And where is your roommate? You get the most amazing stories: why this gig fell through, a job is in the works, an inheritance is on its way.

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Masculinities, Violence, Childhood : Karen L. Nelson :

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